Category: "Welcome"

"Visualising Affect Using Virtual Reality" by Polly Card & Michelle Ruiz

Polly Card

Polly Card is Senior Video Producer at San Diego State University. She is currently working towards a Ph.D in Education with SDSU/CGU focusing on visual research, race and gender. Pollycard.com

Michelle Ruiz

MICHELLE RUIZ is an instructional designer at the University of California Berkeley. Currently, she is focused on the UC-Mexico Initiative: she designs binational  online courses with faculty from University of California and the Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Her research interests include issues of equity and binational collaboration in online higher education. Her personal website can be found at mixelle.net

Contents

Introduction

Context

Positionality & Rationale

Experiencing the World From A New Perspective

The Film

The Film Cont.

Works Cited

Introduction

“Just when you think you know something, you have to look at it in another way. ” - Dead Poets Society, 1989

Robin William’s character invites his students to climb onto his desk to view the classroom from a new perspective.

“You're talking about a 4 hour commute to go to school, it's daunting, and an exhausting, stressful way to live - but you gotta do, what you gotta do right?” - Demitri, Transborder Student, 2017

The Ideological Clarity Machine

The Ideological Clarity Machine can be viewed here -

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=giP2ISmKu0g

For best results use google cardboard (see Image 2) and view in the youtube app.

 The Ideological Clarity Machine (ICM) is a short 360 film that follows the day in the life of a transborder student attending community college. It was produced to elicit greater empathy and commitment to supporting men of color in community college.

The film dramatises the experience of transborder students. We interviewed a number of transborder students, including Demitri (see image 1 above), and synthesize their experiences into a singular cohesive narrative featuring a singular protagonist. The film’s narrative follows a male latino student from his home in Tijuana, over the border crossing, to community college, then to his place of work and back across the border to Tijuana. The film is multimodal, we see the student’s journey, hear his thoughts through narrative voice over, and use graphics to explore the ideology depicted in the scenes.

 



















Pages: 1· 2· 3· 4· 5· 6· 7

"Epistemic Certainty Surrounding Dietary Recommendations for Meat" by Ellen M. Street

 

 Ellen M. Street

Ellen Street is a Ph.D. student in Nutrition at Oregon State University. Her graduate research is
devoted to the beneficial effects of whole foods and plant-based diets with an emphasis on
empowering individuals, through community engagement approaches, to make healthy lifestyle
choices. Ellen earned her B.S. in Clinical Nutrition in 2016 and is an alumnus of the Ronald E.
McNair Scholars Program at the University of Davis where she completed this analysis under the
mentorship of Dr. Sarah Tinker Perrault.

 

Contents 

Abstract

Literature Review

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

Appendix

Works Cited

Abstract

            As nutrition research advances, our dietary recommendations and health guidelines must evolve to reflect the discovery of new knowledge. The vast sea of current nutrition research must be carefully considered and examined. The integrity and repeatability of clinical trials remains paramount to establishing objective, evidence based recommendations. This article examines the use of boosters and hedges to indicate levels of epistemic certainty in a variety of documents relating to recommendations regarding red and processed meat consumption. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans serve as the primary document of interest, compared with a variety of reputable public health recommendations and peer-reviewed literature from journals including The Lancet Oncology, the Archives of Internal Medicine and the American Journal of Epidemiology. The focus of analysis included the discussion and results sections of research articles as well as relevant meat and protein sections in the DGA, AHA/ACC and AICR/WCRF recommendations. Analysis revealed an overall lack of hedges amongst the selected literature. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans used no boosters and one hedge in the selected sections of analysis. Boosters and other markers of modality, such as indicative present and directives, were used frequently to express certainty in both public health and research publications. Hedging was used predominantly in research publications and in the DGA which reflected decreased certainty through repetitive use of a single hedge marker. Overall, the results of this analysis revealed a need for alignment of government claims with research findings including objective discussion of health risks connected to meat consumption and justification for the lean meat, full-fat and processed meat recommendations in the DGA.

          Despite evidence from epidemiological studies and public health reports evaluating the physiologic effects of red and processed meat consumption, the recent 2015-2020 government health recommendations, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) do not reflect prevailing research. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and cancer continue to reign as prevalent causes of mortality in the United States. Evidence presented in current research indicates red and processed meats, sources of saturated fat, trans-saturated fat and carcinogenic compounds, such as nitrites, nitrates and heterocyclic amines, as possible culprits for the high incidences of mortality linked to CVD, type II diabetes and cancer (Pan, 2012). My intent in this analysis is to explore and identify presence of epistemic certainty markers in various government, public health and scholarly publications. I will compare the explicit or implicit recommendations to the current scientific knowledge regarding red and processed meat consumption.


          The Dietary Guidelines are published every five years by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. These guidelines are used by policy makers to develop federal food and nutrition programs and policies which strongly influence the food industry. The guidelines are also heavily influenced by political agendas and shareholders, namely the North American Meat Institute (NAMI or AMI) which remains the most significant institution controlling meat processing and production in the U.S. Throughout the processes of updating the guidelines, the North American Meat Institute submitted testimony and commentary to the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, begging the case for red and processed meat as part of a balanced diet, complete with a menu model analysis showing that processed meat can fit within daily nutrient and calorie requirements (Backus, 2014a). The DGAs ultimate juxtaposition of promoting healthy dietary patterns for the unique individual, with an important omission of detrimental health outcomes sparked challenge among nutrition professionals and major representatives of the meat industry. [1]

            Currently, scientific literature and public health organization (PHO) publications strongly support the causal link between colorectal cancer and processed meats. However, this information is not communicated in the 2015-2020 DGA—there is no mention of a direct correlation between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat consumption. The Dietary Guidelines contain three chapters addressing healthy eating patterns, shifts needed to align with healthy eating patterns and contextual factors that influence lifestyle choices. The first section, Key Elements of Healthy Eating Patterns, includes a section titled, The Science Behind Healthy Eating Patterns. Under “Associations Between Eating Patterns and Health,” the first of two paragraphs reference the existence of evidence linking healthy eating patterns to disease reduction for conditions like CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers, including colorectal and breast. The second paragraph mentions evidence demonstrating the feasibility of lean meat as part of a healthy eating pattern. There are no citations or references included. Instead of discussing why full-fat and processed meats may not be included in this pattern, the sentence segues into referencing the second chapter, highlighting average intakes of meat, poultry, and eggs as above average for teen boys and adult men.

____________________________________________________________________

[1] I noticed the 2015-2020 DGA contain intentional, manipulative silence (Huckin, 2002) due to conflicts of interest from the U.S. meat industry. While this information is relevant and would make for incredibly interesting future research, it reaches beyond the scope of my paper.

Pages: 1· 2· 3· 4· 5· 6· 7· 8

"Exploring the Benefits of Blog Use in First-Year Composition: A Pilot Study" by Jennifer Hewerdine

 

Jennifer Hewerdine

Jennifer M. Hewerdine recently earned her Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University - Carbondale. She is a Professor of English and the Writing Program Administrator at Arizona Western College. Her research interests include multi- and eco-literacies, collaboration, and the development of ethos.

Contents

Introduction

Blogging

Method

Results

Realized Public Audience

Agency

Blog Ownership

Metacognitive Use

Implications for Use and Research

Works Cited

 Introduction

         Although some students may not have access to or experience with writing in digital environments, most of the current generation of students chooses to spend liberal amounts of time in online environments, indicating that they engage with the content, the platform, the versatility, the social dynamics, or some combination of features found in digital environments (see Garikapati et al.). In “The Outcome Effort Gap,” Thomas Greene, Nathan Mari, and Kay McClenney define educational engagement as “the effort, both in time and energy, students commit to educationally purposeful activities” (514). Engagement implies a sinking-in to an activity or an intense focus on a topic. In a definition offering a complementary view to Greene, Mari, and McClenney’s, Roz Ivanic suggests that engagement occurs when an individual opts to participate in an activity by choice, perhaps going beyond the minimum requirements of an assignment or activity (107). Both definitions imply that students become mentally stimulated by and desire to participate in activities they find engaging and worth the time it takes to participate.

            Technology seems to enhance interest in activities for the current generation of students who may already find technology stimulating and part of everyday life (see Garikapati et al.). In her research on student media practices, Deborah Brandt found that writing in digital environments is surpassing reading in digital environments; people are writing more than they are reading, a change from past reading-based literacy practices (66). Most of today’s college students “use [digital resources] as an extension of their brains […] this generation is accustomed to instantaneous hypertext, downloaded music, communication via cell phone and text messaging, and information from laptops,” according to Alison Black, professor of education at SUNY-Oneonta (95). Students’ literacy practices already include vast amounts of communication in a variety of formats, genres, and audience situations. Qualities of students’ extracurricular writing include:

  1. purposeful to the student
  2. oriented to a clear audience
  3. shared, i.e. interactive, participatory and collaborative
  4. learned through participation
  5. in tune with students’ values and identities
  6. agentic, i.e. with the students having control
  7. non-linear, i.e. with varied reading paths
  8. specific to times and places
  9. multimodal, i.e. combining symbols, pictures, colour, music
  10. multimedia, i.e. combining paper and electronic media
  11. varied; not repetitive
  12. generative, i.e. involving meaning-making, creativity, getting things done
  13. self-determined in terms of activity, time and place (Ivanic 108)

          Ivanic’s list of qualities suggests that students regularly engage in multimodal and digital writing, but that the writing is highly participatory and kairotic.

            Of course, context changes the way students view writing; students using multimodal composition for a classroom assignment do not approach writing in the same way they would in a social media setting. Furthermore, in the classroom students do not write by choice but for class requirements. When she began her research with multimodalities, Ivanic questioned whether “literacy practices which are located in one context could be mobilized to serve different purposes in another” (111). In fact, the use of technology for tasks is so commonplace that Danielle DeVoss et al. in the article “Teaching Digital Rhetoric” claim writing “primarily happens online” now and that this shift in location creates a change in the writing process because writers and readers communicate not only through the devices they use to write, but throughout the writing process (234). Indeed, technology is more appealing to many digital natives because multimedia and digital text expand the definition of writing by including multimedia capabilities that appeal to different learning styles (Fishman and Reiff 3). Given the intense interest many students have in multimodal and online writing, it may be possible that their engagement with technology can transfer into the writing classroom.  

   

Pages: 1· 2· 3· 4· 5· 6· 7· 8· 9· 10

"Influential Advertising: Dove and Its Use of Rhetorical Elements in Commercials and Social Media" by Paulina Alvarez

Paulina Alvarez

Paulina Alvarez is an undergraduate student at the University of Central Florida. She is majoring in Advertising and Public Relations and double minoring in Digital Media and Psychology. She wrote this essay for her ENC 1102 class during her freshman year. Paulina wishes to continue learning how visual and written components influence human behavior in order to one day create her own effective advertising campaigns as an art director.

Contents

Introduction

Literature Review

Methods

Results & Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Appendix A

 Introduction

         Dove’s “Campaign for Real Beauty” was ranked as the number one most influential advertisement of our century according to Ad Age. People described it as “groundbreaking, brave, bold, insightful, transparent and authentic” (Neff, n.d.). The campaign’s purpose was not only to sell personal care products but to also try and change societal notions about beauty. As explained by Ad Age, the idea originated in 2003 in the United Kingdom and Canada when Dove decided to launch a series of billboard advertisements featuring regular women instead of professional models. These billboards asked motorists to vote on whether the women pictured were, for example, “fat or fit” or “withered or wonderful.” The results sparked a conversation about society’s beauty standards for women, allowing Dove to refocus their marketing and advertising strategies around the idea of spreading positive messages about women’s beauty.

         The company was determined to create “a new definition of beauty [that] will free women from self-doubt and encourage them to embrace their real beauty” (Pace, 2009, p. 45). This new idea received significant media coverage from multiple talk shows and women’s magazines, generating an estimated media exposure worth 30 times more than the paid-for advertising (Pace, 2009, pp. 44-45). Figuring they were on to something, Dove decided to delve into television commercials and social media to further expand the campaign. Through these channels, the company was able to build successful brand identity, loyalty, and recognition over the years. It fueled a conversation about changing the stereotypical standards of beauty for women, which people appreciated, and even influenced other brands such as Nike, CoverGirl, Pantene, and Always to mimic the marketing and advertising approach.

         This article examines how Dove was able to accomplish all of this. To do so, I designed and conducted a study that addressed the following research question: how do the rhetorical elements surrounding Dove’s commercials and social media play a role in creating the company’s successful campaign? I focused on word choices and the pathos and ethos utilized in creating certain themes for the commercials and social media posts that ultimately helped persuade, motivate, and educate Dove’s audience. I analyzed 160 Instagram posts and Tweets and issued a survey asking participants to answer a few questions about their history with Dove and their opinions on three commercials.

        There has been some research done in the past directly about Dove and its tactics, but the majority of studies specializing in advertising and digital media focus on the areas surrounding the tools a company like Dove uses, such as commercials and social media. For this reason, I will be further expanding the research available directly relating to Dove and how it uses these specific tools in relation to rhetorical elements.

   

Pages: 1· 2· 3· 4· 5· 6· 7

"Multiliteracies for Inclusive Technologies: A Case Study on Location-Based Services and Domestic Violence Survivors" by Jennifer Roth Miller

Jennifer Roth Miller

Jennifer Roth Miller is a student in the Texts and Technology Doctoral Program at the University of Central Florida. Jennifer's research interests explore the convergence of philanthropy, social justice, education, corporate social responsibility, and cause-based marketing in socially constructing collective views on issues such as technology, lifestyle, health, and community.

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Location-Based Services & Privacy

Location-Based Services & Privacy Cont.

Domestic Violence Survivors & Geolocation: A Case Study

Digital Literacy Possibilities for Domestic Violence Survivors

Digital Literacy Possibilities for Domestic Violence Survivors Cont.

Potential for Rhetoric & Composition

Works Cited

Abstract

Location-based services on smartphones connect users with real-time relevant information such as maps, directions, recommendations, reviews, and opportunities to connect socially. At the same time, these applications supply the network with users’ personal and location information. Posting on social media allows people to build positive identity socially. However, people barter away small bits of privacy with each user agreement and post. Users’ personal and location information, embedded in code and metadata, is aggregated across sites to produce geodemographic and activity pattern information and is sold as a commodity to advertisers. Beyond marketing, location-based services offer tech-savvy criminals another tool for tracking. This case study investigates users' privacy concerns and the degree of their concerns about safety, monitoring, and crime; these were found to vary across demographics such as age and gender. Impact to the mainstream public is generally considered low, however, domestic violence survivors emerged as a non-mainstream population whose safety is severely jeopardized by the technology. This case study examines how location-based services impact the safety of domestic violence survivors and reveals ways that emerging technologies might be shaped by a variety of actors, ranging from technology designers, to mainstream and non-mainstream users, to rhetoric and composition professors who strive to be more inclusive and just. This case study elucidates a model for promoting social justice in future technologies by fostering multiliteracies on many fronts.

Keywords: location-based services, smartphones, social media, intimate partner violence

Pages: 1· 2· 3· 4· 5· 6· 7· 8· 9